Design and Construction Criteria for High-Speed Ferries

Most of the classification societies have construction criteria for high-speed craft. Studies are being embarked on to perk up the international standards related to high-speed vessel. The updated versions of high-speed crafts have robust engineering and technical sophistication. Generally, the hulls are designed by using light weight materials. Weight has an unfavourable outcome on functionality and speed. Every kg of weight saved in the setup, machinery and structure adds to the performance and also the weight available for fuel and payload.

Fast ferries

  • Stress analysis of hull during the design process

The high speed vessels/ catamarans are being built accordingly to meet HSC (high speed code). During the design process, the stress analysis of the hull is looked at very carefully. The main objective is to make the hull as light weight and still as possible. To achieve this, majority of the hulls are constructed using marine grade composites and/or 5000 series aluminium. If steel is used, it has to be of very high quality. Composite construction is the lightest and most costly construction procedure by making use of carbon fibre or high-tech materials. The cost is high due to expensive raw materials, and cost associated with tooling, moulds, curing processes and lamination. Normally, composite hull are present on vessels of length 30 meters or less.

  • Directional steadiness and manoeuvrability

As compared to conventional vessels, most of the multi-hull designs have minimal speed loss in rough waves due to decreased pitching motion. Manoeuvrability and directional steadiness at low and high speeds are evaluated to be fruitful because of the hulls separation and the propulsion units’ outboard location. Catamarans/fast ferries will have to adjust their speed according to the actual wave height. Generally, multi-hulls have less capacity to carry cargo than mono-hulls, per displacement ton. Because of high centre of gravity, which means low metacentric height, the distribution of weight becomes more sensitive.

  • Reduced rolling motions to enhance passenger comfort

Reduced rolling or pitching motions improves passenger comfort. High-speed ferries for sale have loads of specific equipment to enhance passenger comfort like stabilization units. The passenger accommodation space often have aviation seating feature.

In most of the situations, the vessels are designed to function and operate on particular geographic location and services. The proposed usage is examined related to route, speed, service, passenger and cargo capacity, operational matters, passenger comfort and environmental factors. The special design parameters of a vessel can be modified for use as per particular service. So, fast ferries for sale can be customized as per the concerning usage.

Special focus must be given to the construction and design of high-speed vessels. Design, construction and manufacturing from reliable firms and yards are preferred. The commonly used main engines are high-speed and medium diesels. Classification status from a well-known Society is important. Normally, all catamarans are being built to drawings approved by highly recognized class society. The capability of a ship to keep floating after an accident should be verified, giving special attention to reserve buoyancy and hull compartmentalization. If the vessel is a used one, its earlier service history should be asked for. Paying attention to recurring troubles or downtime would help in operational functionality. There are many types of designs that have been serving the commercial shipping industry over a period of time.

Flag Administration and Responsibility Of The Authority For Enforcing Maritime Regulations

The UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) is an umbrella that brings together many features of the sea and its uses, which includes a ship’s registration granting by a State. After a ship is registered, the flag State has certain duties laid out in UNCLOS. Particularly, under Article 94, the flag State must efficiently implement its jurisdiction and control in technical, administrative and social matters. Under the patronage of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), International Conventions have been decided upon that lend out uniform requirements to facilitate the acceptance of a vessel registered in a country in the sea or any water body and ports of another country, as well as the broad-spectrum safety maintenance at the sea and environment protection. These needs are generally known as ‘statutory’ requirements.

Four Discrete Areas of Statutory Requirement

  • Structural integrity and design of the ship

At the time of ship structure designing, it is required to secure the safety rationally by investigating into structural integrity assessment methods. It includes the inspection strategy and material characterization, in-service performance of significant details, inspection and repairs, risk-based assessment, material selection, testing, inspection reliability, hull and process equipment. According to the Norwegian offshore standards (NORSOK, 2007), there must be sufficient space for the wave crest to pass under the deck to make sure that a 10000-year wave load does not cause danger to the structural integrity.

  • Environmental friendly measures with respect to ship operation

Ships operating by maintaining a healthy environment are providing loads of benefits to human being and the shipping industry. The awareness needs to be created with respect to the change in climatic conditions and green credentials need to develop. All passenger ferries for sale comply with these measures.

  • Preventive measures which include navigation aids and fire protection

The SOLAS (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) guarantees that vessels flagged by signatory States meet minimum standards of safety in construction, operation and equipment. In Chapter II fire safety necessities for all ships with comprehensive measures for cargo vessels, passenger ships, and RoRo ships.

  • Containment and escape situation

It is crucial to design effectual escape routes that should provide hassle-free escape of passengers and crew members without any confusion and congestion at the time of leaving the ship or offshore structure in an emergency situation.  As per IMO, there should be 2 escape routes from two different spaces and exclude dead-end corridors in ships. The width of the escape routes are determined by a simple and proven calculation method. Checking out the escape routes or emergency exit is a must when seeking day ferries for sale.

Flag Administration Delegating Inspection

International Conventions and SOLAS allow the flag Administration to allocate the survey and inspection of passenger ships, double ended ferries for sale or other ships to a RO (Recognized Organization). The RO is answerable to the flag Administration for the task that it performs on its behalf.  The principles of the survey and inspection work are very similar to classification surveys. RO also verifies whether or not a ship meets all the requirements and standards during the time of survey. The extents of these surveys and inspections are set down by the applicable national laws depending on International Conventions to which the Government is a signatory, along with other instructions that may be regulated by the flag Administration.